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cost of supporting old browsers

I've begun to question the wisdom of standards for websites that require support for older browsers like Netscape 4. Backwards compatibility is all well and good, but I feel like often times clients--government ones in particular--formulate these requirements without any real cost-benefit analysis.

Keeping support for Netscape 4, IE 3, etc. has a very real cost, with respect to CSS and DHTML/Javascript one-offs, or having to pass on new patterns like AJAX. But many statistics show that fewer than 1% of all browsers are Netscape 4--even going back a year or two. (See here for an example.) Most people are using IE 6.

On the other hand, a commercial client I visited had done a very careful cost-benefit analysis on operating system support--they knew exactly how many of their users were still using Windows 98 and how much it would tick them off if they were forced to upgrade. So they might be stuck supporting it, but at least they could justify the decision.

So, before making requirements to support Netscape 4, clients should do their homework, and ask themselves what the benefit is--is anyone really still using it and can't upgrade? And how much extra time and money are the developers going to spend on workarounds to support these old browsers, compared to the value delivered?
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Wireless adventure

I must have bad luck with my home wireless network. I had a D-Link DI-514 wireless router, which worked great until I got a new IBM Thinkpad X40 with the built-in Centrino. After various firmware upgrades, configuration changes, etc., I could not get the two to work together--I was getting roughly 30% packet loss and 500 ms ping times, with the notebook right next to the router antenna.

So I got a new DI-524 which had a big Centrino-verified logo on the front. But, after unpacking it and hooking it up, it won't talk to my cable modem (also a D-Link product, a DCM-200) and the "WAN" link light doesn't even come on.

I take the thing back to the store, bring home another DI-524 *and* a Linksys BEFW11S4 just to be safe. Sure enough, they *all* have the same problem with the WAN link light. What are the odds?

After some googling and a call to D-Link tech support (who was way more knowledgeable than I expected) it turns out that this mass-market consumer equipment doesn't do a good job of auto-sensing 10- vs. 100-mbit ethernet, and my old cable modem is only 10mb. After a firmware upgrade it all worked.

The design lesson here is the "principle of least astonishment"--I'm somewhat knowledgeable about network stuff, but so far every piece of 100mbit ethernet equipment I've used doesn't just break if the other end is only 10mbit. So when that link light didn't come on, I immediately assumed the unit was defective, especially when there was no documentation of this issue. I could have saved myself (and Best Buy's returns counter) a whole lot of trouble if the problem were more clear.

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displaytag sorting/paging performance vs. native SQL

displaytag is an easy-to-use JSP tag library for printing out HTML data tables with sorting and paging. But, there's a catch. In an enterprise application, collections are the result of some database query, so implementing sorting and paging entirely within the presentation layer is not going to be as efficient as doing both natively in the database with ORDER BY, LIMIT and OFFSET (assume PostgreSQL syntax). Instead, displaytag expects the entire collection to be in memory, displaying only the necessary ones, and sorting the Java collection itself.

I ran some tests to see exactly how much this affects performance. On a non-scientific test (YMMV) with a 250 row result set, sorting with displaytag added an 34% overhead over a native ORDER BY. There was a much more dramatic difference for paging, though. On a test where I loaded 250 rows from the DB and displayed only 25 (pagesize=25), displaytag took 141% longer on average than a "LIMIT 25" which only returns the 25 rows to actually be displayed. The overhead factor will scale with the total number of rows in the original, unlimited query.

So, displaytag clearly is not as efficient as sorting and paging in native SQL. But is it enough of a difference to matter? Well, it depends on your application--it's a classic tradeoff between performance and elegant design. Separation of concerns says paging results conceptually belongs in the presentation layer; in a layered J2EE application, you can push sorting/paging down through the business and persistence layers, but it isn't pretty.

My personal opinion, though, is that performance normally shouldn't be enough of a factor to dissuade you from using displaytag for sorting/paging results. If your query returns so many rows that you can't afford the overhead from the undisplayed rows, then you may not be thinking about paging the right way--paging should be thought of as purely a UI layer construct to save the user from scrolling or downloading a large HTML document, not to save the database from working too hard. How meaningful is it to jump from page 1 to page 47 out of 62 anyway? If your query returns more than, say, 300 rows (15 pages with 20 rows each), you probably should think about making the user provide additional search criteria first rather than blindly paging the output.

What about the other option--coupling the presentation layer directly to the database? It's easy to imagine an extension to displaytag that takes a SQL query rather than a Java collection, and handles sorting/paging natively by dynamically appending ORDER BY and LIMIT/OFFSET clauses. (Indeed, the MS toolset seems to actively encourage this pattern.)

This is fine for prototyping or simple apps that don't have much business logic beyond the basic CRUD transactions. But, this can rapidly become unmaintainable--not only are there many more places to touch if the DB schema changes, but you are also at risk of introducing bugs by accessing tables directly and potentially bypassing domain logic (business rules) tied to particular fields. Still, it may be worth considering tihs as a strategy for hand-optimizing queries with special performance requirements that outweigh maintainability, especially if the query is more relational than object-oriented in nature.

In summary, displaytag is a good, simple choice for many applications that need HTML tables with sorting and paging. There may be a performance hit, but a clean, maintainable design often is more
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USB flash drives and Linux

I've had to set up a USB stick with Linux recently. It's fairly easy if you know the right magic.

Here are some links to useful resources:

Post on
Flash memory HOWTO on ibiblio

Essentially it boils down to adding a line to /etc/fstab and then mounting /dev/sda1 or /dev/sdb1 on some mount point (directory). You don't strictly need to edit /etc/fstab, but if you don't you will need to be root in order to write anything on it. Here's the magic for /etc/fstab to allow non-root to get read/write access:
/dev/sda1 /mnt/usbstick vfat        rw,user,noauto 0 0

(assuming your mount point is /mnt/usbstick.)

If that doesn't work, check /var/log/messages and see if your stick is on /dev/sdb1 instead.

I'm looking forward to it being as easy to use USB sticks under a default Linux distro as it is under Windows, though. I hate to say it, but under Windows, they "just work."
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Avoiding Anemic Domain Models with Hibernate

One of Hibernate's most under-appreciated features is its ability to persist private fields. This feature is useful for avoiding what Martin Fowler calls the Anemic Domain Model anti-pattern, where domain objects (entities) are reduced to "dumb" record structures with no business logic. In an Anemic Domain Model, you lose all the benefits of OOP: polymorphism, data hiding, encapsulation, etc.

The Anemic Domain Model may have originally evolved from EJB CMP, which requires any persistent field to be accessible directly with a public getter/setter. Developers using POJO frameworks like Hibernate often duplicate the same pattern, though, simply replacing the entity beans with POJOs.

This is not just an academic discussion; this has real consequences for the quality of a codebase. (Academically, this is part of the OOP-RDBMS "impedance mismatch"--in particular, that there is no distinction between a setter/constructor call that actually mutates/constructs an object and one that is merely incidental to materializing an existing object's state from persistent storage.) Let's say you're developing a system for issue tracking with a business rule like "anyone can create a ticket or change its status, but only managers can raise it to 'critical.'" A fragment of an Issue object might look like this (some detail omitted to focus on encapsulation/data hiding issues):
public class Issue {

private String m_status;
public String getStatus() {
return m_status;
public void setStatus(String newStatus) {
if (newStatus == STATUS_CRITICAL && !getCurrentUser().isManager()) {
throw new SecurityException("critical.requires.manager");
m_status = newStatus;
This looks great until you realize that setStatus(STATUS_CRITICAL) is also going to be called from the persistence layer in materializing an existing Issue that is already critical, not just when making an explicit change through the UI workflow. Since anyone can view any issue, SecurityException will be thrown when a non-manager tries to view an issue that is already critical. We immediately recognize that the persistence layer needs a way to get "privileged" access to set the underlying field directly, bypassing business logic.

The typical workaround is to give up encapsulation and move the business logic into the corresponding service layer object (e.g., stateless session bean) for issue transactions:
public class IssueManager {

public Issue findIssueById(Long id) ;
public Issue newIssue(... fields ...) {
// begin TX
// ... setup new issue
if (status == STATUS_CRITICAL && !getCurrentUser().isManager()) {
throw new SecurityException("critical.requires.manager");
// ...
// commit TX
public void changeStatus(Long id, String status) {
// begin TX, load issue
if (status == STATUS_CRITICAL && !getCurrentUser().isManager()) {
throw new SecurityException("critical.requires.manager");
// commit TX
Now, two real consequences are apparent. First, giving up encapsulation leads to cut-and-paste programming, violating the "don't repeat yourself" principle; this increases the risk of error of the business rule not being cut-and-paste again somewhere it's needed. Second, you lose polymorphism; it is now very difficult to have a subclass of Issue with slightly different business rules. (For example, maybe the main Issue has no restriction on setting status, but a specific type of issue has the critical-requires-manager rule.)

It's true that you could have two separate sets of getters/setters in the Issue itself, one that applies business logic and one that allows direct access and is only used by persistence. This would address the polymorphism issue. But if that direct accessors are also public (as EJB CMP requires) then you still lose data hiding; nothing prevents your service layer/transaction scripts from calling these methods directly.

If you're using Hibernate, though, there is a very elegant solution. Hibernate is effectively "privileged" by manipulating bytecode, so it can touch private fields directly. Hibernate gives you two options in the above scenario:
  • You can have two separate bean-style properties linked to the same underlying field, one with private getters/setters and the other with public. The private methods access the underlying field directly, and the public ones apply business rules. This is the preferred approach, but has the downside of verbosity, plus you have to use different property names in HQL (private) and everywhere else (public).
  • Hibernate can also persist fields directly by using the "access" attribute on and so on. The upside is that this is more concise with only a single public bean-style property, but using access="field" requires the field name to exactly match the private instance variable name; this won't work if you have some kind of Hungarian naming convention like "m_foo". You can do something like access="MyFieldAccessor" where MyFieldAccessor is a custom class implementing, implementing your naming convention (mapping bean property names to member var names) but that requires extra effort.
There are other uses for this feature in Hibernate:
  • Primary keys are generally supposed to be immutable by normal business logic, set only within the persistence layer. So, "setId" methods can almost always be private or protected.
  • Collections getters and setters can also be kept private, to preserve data hiding (prevent rep exposure). Otherwise, when business logic can manipulate a collection directly, it's difficult to enforce business rules on the collection elements, or even to ensure the elements are of the correct type. (The latter may partially be addressed by generics in Java 5 and/or Hibernate 3.)
I believe JDO also instruments classes at runtime to get similar privileged access to persistent fields.
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more PostgreSQL performance junk

Someone at work was running a big delete (100k rows) and it was taking forever, as if it were hung. We couldn't figure out what was going on, and there was clearly a non-linear effect: smaller deletes on 10k rows were completing very fast, less than 5 sec, while 100k rows was still running after 20 mins.

We think the big delete was taking so long because PostgreSQL may try to keep a rollback buffer for the whole delete operation in memory or something like that, causing thrashing or something like that. I haven't tried this on Oracle, but I'm guessing that it and other databases may be smarter about managing their physical storage directly (RAM vs disk) rather than relying on the underlying OS.

but then again, if you're touching 100k rows at once, probably not a bad idea to commit every so often anyway, so as to avoid a long-running transaction that could potentially hose other users.
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PostgreSQL on cygwin: "Bad system call"

I was getting this "Bad system call" message from PostgreSQL 7.4.x on cygwin. It was working earlier, and I thought I had done everything right--cygserver was up and running, so I didn't know what was up. ipcs gave the same error.

Turns out I had forgot the magic word: "CYGWIN=server". The first time I installed PostgreSQL (and read the docs), I had just set the var on the command line (CYGWIN=server pg_ctl start ...) and never put it in my profile. Easy enough to fix.
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PostgreSQL performance of "where exists"

Today I was looking into the performance of a PostgreSQL query with a "... where exists (select 1 from ...)" subquery:
select foo_id from foo

where exists (select 1 from bar where bar.foo_id = foo.foo_id)
I was surprised to find out that this query actually ran faster when I restructured it with a SELECT DISTINCT and a JOIN:
select distinct(foo_id) from bar

join foo on bar.foo_id=foo.foo_id
Some references on the web I've found suggest that EXISTS is the preferred way to write the above query in general. Because it's a boolean condition, in theory the database needs to scroll fewer rows because it can stop as soon as the first match is found; and the DISTINCT can be expensive if the results from the join version would not have been unique.

An ancient PostgreSQL mailing list post indicates that rewriting the query as a JOIN may be faster than EXISTS in PostgreSQL, because the join can take advantage of indexes while EXISTS does a nested loop. But, then again, I'm still using PostgreSQL 7.3.x, and EXISTS handling may well have been improved in 7.4.
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"Client CVS Branch" anti-pattern

Scenario: Your team developed a custom application for Client A. The application is generally useful, so it gets re-sold to Client B. Client B wants some customizations, which are at first superficial (CSS, images, etc.), and the client expects a quick turnaround. So, you need a way to store Client B’s new version of the app in source control somehow, and you take the first approach that comes to mind: you create a branch of the original, and make the customizations for Client B on the new branch.

(Without loss of generality, I’m assuming you’re using CVS; Subversion and Perforce have different branch/merge models but they basically boil down to the same thing. But if you’re using PVCS or VSS, or worse, not using source control at all, you have bigger problems which I’ll save for some other time.)

At first, this works pretty well. But over time, you sell the same app to more clients, and they are each asking for more substantial new feature development. The strategy starts to break down, causing a whole series of problems:

- Bug fixes have to be explicitly merged into each client’s branch individually.

- Since the code in each client branch diverges over time as different things are added or changed in one or the other, merging bug fixes results in more manual conflict resolution. (The same thing goes for new features.) This also makes for more re-testing of the same thing.

- There is a potential for wheel reinvention. If you develop a new feature for Client C, and Client D asks for a new feature that is “close but not quite” the same as Client C’s, it may be developed independently twice rather than building it once in a way that accommodates both sets of requirements.

- You fail to realize potential economies of scale of in support or maintenance that you should get from having a single solution, since each client effectively has their own one-off version.

The problem stems from the lack of a well-defined “trunk” in source control that provides the common baseline functionality. Instead, each client’s version was branching off of another client’s branch (Client A’s) rather than from a common trunk. So there was no way to nail down which part of the code stays constant for all clients.

Here's a few ways to solve this problem:

- Have each client’s version be a branch from a common trunk, and have the discipline to make as much functionality in the trunk configurable at deployment/runtime as possible (the later the binding, the better). That way, you increase the percentage of code that all clients have in common, and establish a common baseline version that multiple clients share. Also, there will then be a well-defined process for upgrading a client’s branch to a new version of the baseline “core” code, and many fewer post-merge conflicts to resolve manually.

- Most teams won’t actually have the discipline to consistently put in the extra effort to make new features configurable. So you can take this a step further: give each client is own separate repository that contains only the customizations for that client, then apply those customizations as a patch against the common baseline version. This will force you to think about whether any given code should be common and shared across all clients or whether it is a customization.

- There is also a management aspect to solving this problem: make sure someone is accountable for the entire solution as deployed for all clients, not just each individual client’s project. When you’re only accountable for your own client, you’ll inevitably take the path of least resistance to keep your own client happy and not see the bigger picture of delivering for all clients more effectively (this is actually rational behavior according to game theory).

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